The term leukemia refers to cancers of the white blood cells (also called leukocytes or WBCs). Leukemias, as a group, make up about a quarter of all pediatric cancers. Luckily, with treatment, most children with leukemia will be free of the disease without it coming back.
Leukemias start in the bone marrow — the soft tissue found inside bones that produces blood cells. When a child is diagnosed with leukemia, it’s because the white blood cells in the body are producing abnormally. These cells (also known as blasts) start to crowd out the healthy cells in the bone marrow. Eventually, the healthy cells have no place to go, so they stop producing. When a child's body no longer produces enough healthy white blood cells it can cause anemia, swollen lymph nodes, and other symptoms of leukemia in children.
Leukemia is classified as being either acute (meaning it’s rapidly developing) or chronic (meaning it’s slowly developing). About 98% of pediatric leukemias are acute.
Types of leukemia in children include:
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): This happens when too many lymphoblasts (a certain type of white blood cell) are produced.
This is the most common type of leukemia, affecting nearly 60% of kids with leukemia.
- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML): This occurs when too many immature white blood cells (called myeloid blasts) are made.
These leukemia cells are abnormal and can’t mature into normal white blood cells.
- Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML): This rare form of pediatric leukemia happens because there are too many mature white blood cells.
Although the symptoms of leukemia in each individual child can vary, common symptoms of leukemia in children include:
- anemia (when the level of healthy red blood cells in the body becomes
- bleeding and/or bruising
- frequent or reoccurring infections
- bone and joint pain
- abdominal pain
- swollen lymph nodes (also called “swollen glands”)
- difficulty breathing
- excessive fatigue (more tired than usual)
- poor appetite
IMPORTANT NOTE: Instances of the symptoms of leukemia in children listed above, either together or on their own, do not automatically mean that a child has leukemia or any other kind of cancer. Any or all of these symptoms could be a sign of something else.
One of our Nemours pediatric hematologists-oncologists (doctors who treat blood disorders and cancers) will conduct a physical examination on your child to check for symptoms of leukemia in children such as signs of infection, anemia, abnormal bleeding, and swollen lymph nodes.
The doctor will also feel your child's abdomen to see if the liver or spleen is enlarged. We’ll also take a complete medical history by asking about your child’s symptoms, past health, your family's health history, any medications your child is taking, allergies, etc.
After this exam, the doctor will order a CBC (complete blood count) to measure the numbers of white cells, red cells, and platelets in your child's blood. Your child’s blood chemistries will also be checked.
Then, depending on what we find in the exam and blood tests, your child also may need a:
- bone marrow biopsy and aspiration (when marrow samples are taken for testing, usually from the back of the hip)
- lymph node biopsy (when lymph nodes are removed and examined under a microscope to look for abnormal cells)
- lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap, when a sample of spinal fluid is taken from the lower back and examined for evidence of abnormal cells. This test will show if the leukemia has spread to the brain and spinal cord.)
We know that tests can be scary – for you and your child. Whatever kind of tests your child might need, know that your Nemours pediatric leukemia care team will do everything we can to make the experience as comfortable as possible – physically and emotionally. We’ll give sedation or anesthesia as needed and offer support and guidance at every step.
Depending on your child’s age, overall health, extent of the disease, and other factors, treatment may include one or a combination of the following:
- radiation therapy
- blood or bone marrow transplant (also sometimes called a BMT, BBMT, stem cell transplant, or cord blood transplant)
- blood transfusions
At Nemours, we know that getting a cancer diagnosis can be very frightening and overwhelming for your whole family. That’s why Nemours’ board-certified pediatric hematologists-oncologists, specialty nurses, cancer researchers, and other cancer experts are focused on helping not only your child, but your family, as well.
From diagnosis to treatment (and beyond) we’ll be here to help guide your family through your pediatric leukemia journey – and to strive and hope, with you, for a better tomorrow.
From Nemours' KidsHealth
- Childhood Cancer
- Radiation Therapy
- Lumbar Puncture (Spinal Tap)
- Blood Test: Complete Blood Count
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
- Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
- Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow
- Stem Cell Transplants
- Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
- Cancer Center
- Cancer: Franklen's Story (Video)
- Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children
- Taking Care of You: Support for Caregivers
- Caring for a Seriously Ill Child
Trusted External Resources
- Leukemia & Lymphoma Society
- Alex’s Lemonade Stand
- American Cancer Society
- Beyond the Cure
- CHILD Cancer Fund
- Children’s Oncology Group
- Dreams Come True
- Make-A-Wish Foundation
- National Bone Marrow Donor Program
- National Cancer Institute
- National Institutes of Health
- Survivorship Guidelines
Cancer: Franklen's Story (Video)
Franklen, 10, a cancer survivor, shares his journey from diagnosis to recovery. He also gives advice to other patients, like trusting in one's health team and remembering to laugh.