Finding out your child has a condition like diabetes can be overwhelming. And, although it’s a disease that will always be part of your child’s life, getting help sooner rather than later is key to successfully managing the disease so your child can live a childhood unrestricted by the condition.
When children are diagnosed with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, it means there’s too much glucose — the body’s main source of energy for cells — in their bloodstream. Although glucose is found naturally in child’s body, it also comes from the food they eat. Too much or too little glucose in the blood can cause serious health problems.
Both types of diabetes can occur at any age, but kids with Type 1 diabetes make no insulin, and kids with Type 2 make insulin, but it doesn't work as well as it should.
Insulin is a hormone found in the pancreas that allows sugar to get into cells of the body so that sugar can be used as energy.
Symptoms of Children With Diabetes
Some of the most common signs and symptoms of children with diabetes include:
sugar in urine
sudden vision changes
sudden weight loss
fruity or sweet-like odor on breath
heavy or labored breathing
Diagnosing Children With Diabetes
Children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are typically diagnosed after presenting with symptoms such as unexplained weight loss, excessive urination, or excessive thirst. Children are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes typically through a urine sample during a routine examination and symptoms are less dramatic.
Some lab tests that may be used to diagnose diabetes include:
fasting plasma test (FPG): a blood test that measures blood glucose in someone who has fasted for at least 8 hours
oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): this test is given to someone who has fasted for 8 hours and then is asked to drink a glucose-containing beverage
random plasma glucose test: this blood glucose test is done without regard to fasting
Nutrition Tips for Children With Diabetes
At Nemours, our registered dietitians are part of your child’s diabetes care team. Nutrition is an important part of proper diabetes management. It’s not only about counting carbohydrates; it’s about healthy eating habits that are enjoyable.
Developing a Healthy Meal Plan
Healthy food choices should be encouraged for all family members. A registered dietitian at Nemours can help plan a healthy meal plan for your child with diabetes. Just as your child grows and develops, so must your child’s meal plan.
A healthy meal plan includes certain types of carbohydrates (carbs), lean protein, and fat and can be used for children with diabetes and without.
Carbohydrates are found in foods such as bread/starch, fruit, milk, and sweets. Eating carbs makes blood sugar levels rise, but that doesn’t mean that people with diabetes should avoid them — the body needs carbs. Since they affect blood sugar levels, it’s recommended children with diabetes track how many carbs they eat.
Follow these tips for healthy nutrition:
Choose healthy carbs that provide fiber, vitamins, and other nutrients,
whole wheat/grains instead of white bread, white pasta, or white rice
fresh fruit instead of fruit juices
fat-free or 1% milk instead of whole or 2% milk
light ice cream instead of full fat ice cream
limit desserts like cake, cookies, and candy, to special occasions
Choose protein from lean meats (cuts of beef and pork that end in “loin” or skinless chicken/turkey), egg whites, reduced-fat cheese, nuts, tofu, and beans.
Avoid foods high in saturated fats and trans fats, as these can raise heart-damaging cholesterol in the body. Choose heart-healthy fats, such as olive oil, canola oil, peanuts, and avocado. Remember that all fats are high in calories, so watch your portion sizes if you are trying to lose or maintain weight.
Drink mainly water instead of regular soda, fruit punch, sweet tea, and other sugary drinks. It’s OK to have calorie-free “diet” drinks occasionally.
Watch your portion sizes! Eating too much of even healthy foods can lead to excessive weight gain.
Understanding DIABETES, By H. Peter Chase, MD, published by Children’s Diabetes Foundation at Denver (ISBN 978-098326500-9). An instructional manual for families of children with diabetes.
Camps for Kids With Special Needs
Kids with special needs are no exception. But the idea can seem challenging to parents and kids alike — how can you be sure that your child will get the attention he or she needs? Will your child be able to participate fully? What about the other kids? Will your child make friends? Will they understand your child's special needs?
The good news is that there are many camp choices for kids with special needs. From highly specialized camps to regular camps that accommodate kids with special needs, options abound.
Different Types of Camps
When it comes to camps, kids with special needs have as many choices as other kids. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires all camps to make reasonable accommodations (such as the installation of wheelchair-accessible ramps) so that kids with special needs can attend. So, camps that previously couldn't host kids with special needs might now be on your list of possibilities.
Inclusionary (or mainstream) camps do just what their name implies: They include kids with special needs in their groups of children with regular needs. These camps may have started out serving only a general population of kids, but they've gradually changed as the needs of the families they serve have changed.
Some camps are designed just for kids with special needs, including kids who have learning or behavioral problems, those with specific chronic illnesses, and kids with mental or physical impairments. Many accept kids with a variety of needs, but some only accept kids with specific problems (such as camps for kids with diabetes, cancer, speech or hearing impairment, cystic fibrosis, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, etc.).
Within all of these categories, you'll have even more choices to consider regarding length of stay, philosophy, and cost. There are nonprofit and for-profit camps, religious camps, camps run by national organizations, private camps, day camps, camps that run weekend sessions, and sleepover camps that accept kids for the entire summer.
Benefits of Camp
The benefits of camp for kids with special needs are often the same as for any child:
increased confidence and independence
activity and exercise
the opportunity to interact with other kids, develop friendships, and build relationships
positive role modeling by adults
a chance for parents to have a much-needed break
Independence is an important camp benefit. For example, an overnight mainstream camp can give special-needs kids the chance to be without parents, doctors, or physical therapists for a week. They'll do more things for themselves and learn how to ask friends to help, which can boost problem-solving and communication skills.
Also, camp provides the physical benefits of increased activity. Many kids with disabilities or chronic illnesses are sedentary and don't get to participate in the sports or recreational activities that their peers do. They therefore miss out on the social and health benefits that exercise brings.
Camp provides a variety of activities such as swimming, wheelchair racing, dancing, tennis, or golf. These give immediate health benefits (such as improved cardiovascular fitness) and recreational options that can carry over into adult life.
Many camps combine learning environments with these physical activities, giving kids with behavioral or learning problems the chance to develop, or catch up on, needed skills during the summer.
Starting Your Camp Search
To find a camp, make lists of the basics you're looking for: a list of goals, a list of caretaking priorities, and a list of other considerations (such as cost).
Then consider which type of camp might best suit your child:
inclusionary (or mainstream) camps
camps for kids with a specific special need
camps for kids with many different kinds of special needs
Consider whether your child has ever been away from home, for the weekend or even longer, and what experiences might have helped prepare him or her for camp. This will help you to decide not only the type of camp, but whether your child is ready for a day camp or a sleepover (residential) camp.
Involving kids in the camp search will help to ensure that they get the most out of the camp selected. So, ask your child:
What do you want to get out of summer camp?
What are your preferences?
Do you want to go to a coed camp, or just be around kids of the same gender?
Are there any activities you really want to try?
Would you be more comfortable going to a camp with kids who do or don't have special needs?
Are you comfortable being away from home? If so, for how long?
Do you have classmates or friends who have gone to a summer camp? If so, which ones? And did they like it?
Do you have a friend who you would like to go to camp with? What camp will they be attending?
If it turns out that the idea of camp is a bit overwhelming for both you and your child, you might want to try starting small, like weekend sessions at a special-needs camp.
Doing Your Research
Whatever type of camp you're leaning toward, it's important to do your research. Many places offer information — the American Camping Association (ACA), for example, has an online listing of special-needs camps broken down by the types of camps, cost, length of stay, state/region, and campers' ages. The site is also loaded with general and age-appropriate advice for parents of would-be campers.
You also can call local chapters of major disability organizations about camps in your area. Many organizations publish lists of camps and can connect you with camp directors and former campers.
You might have a special-needs camp fair in your area. Check the calendar listings in your local newspapers and monthly parenting magazines. Many of these are held in January or February, which means that you need to start your camp search early.
Of course, part of your research will involve figuring out what you can afford. The cost of camps varies widely, with some high-end special-needs camps costing thousands of dollars for multiple-week sessions.
You can help fund your child's camp experience by applying for scholarships — experts say to do so from December through March, because the money is gone by April or May. You can contact charitable organizations and fraternal organizations (such as the Lions, Kiwanis, and Rotary Clubs, all of which sponsor special-needs camps). And depending on your child's specific special need, he or she may be eligible for financial aid from your state. Other sources of scholarships include religious or ethnic charities.
One thing to know: You usually first need to find a camp that can take your child — most of these organizations send the scholarship money to the camp in the child's name, not to the parents directly.
Questions to Ask
So, how do you narrow down your choices and pick the camp that's right for your child? Some basic and special-needs-specific questions you'll need to have answered include:
How long are the sessions?
What's the cost? Are scholarships available?
Is it coed, girls-only, or boys-only?
What's the age range of campers?
Where is it located? How far away from your home is it?
What's the staff-to-camper ratio?
How old are most of the counselors?
What type of certification do the counselors have?
What's the turnover rate? Do kids and staff come back?
What's the camp's philosophy? Does it fit with your goals for your child?
What's the camp's transportation system like?
If physical accessibility is an issue, what's the layout of the camp? What provisions has the camp made (or can it make) for wheelchairs or crutches?
If your child needs a special diet, can the camp provide appropriate meals? If not, can you provide food for your child?
Do staff members have a background working with kids with special needs?
If your child has behavior problems, are camp staffers trained to handle such problems?
Do the counselors have first-aid training?
What kind of medical and nursing staff is available in the infirmary and during what hours? Can the staff administer any medications your child needs?
What's the procedure if your child develops a complication related to his or her medical problems? How far is the nearest hospital? If your child needs specialized treatment, is it available at that hospital?
Although you can get some of this information through phone calls, emails, brochures, and websites, experts recommend visiting the camp. You can talk to the director, see the rooms or cabins, and get a comprehensive picture of where your child will be.
Probably the only way to get a true feel for the camp is for you and your child to visit it together. This is especially important if your child is going to a regular (inclusionary or mainstream) camp where they haven't hosted many children with special needs before. This gives you a chance to point out changes they might need to make and see how the camp's staff responds to your requests.
If you can't visit a camp, interview the director and some staff members to get a feel for the place. Ask them to describe the physical layout and the kinds of activities your child will do. Also ask to speak with other families whose kids have attended to see what their experiences were like. In fact, word of mouth is one of the best ways to find out what you need to know about each camp.
As you're trying to figure out which camp is best, just remember that whatever the special need, there's likely a camp out there to suit your child. With some research and understanding between you, your child, and the camp director, your camper-to-be can have an unforgettable summer.