A varicocele means there is enlargement of the veins in the scrotum caused by stasis of blood flow. The stasis can cause blood to pool in the vessel until the vessel wall begins to bulge, and the scrotal sac swells. Though it may appear earlier, a varicocele usually develops around the age of 15 (puberty) and often occurs on the left side.

What are the signs or symptoms of a varicocele?

If your son has a varicocele, he may not experience any pain or swelling, except perhaps during physical exercise. While bathing, he might notice a large vein in his scrotum, or that one testis is smaller than the other. Varicoceles are sometimes discovered during routine physical examinations.

How are varicoceles treated?

If a varicocele is found during a physical examination by your child’s primary care physician, your child will be referred to a pediatric urologist. Your Nemours urologist will do a comprehensive evaluation of your child’s condition, including a physical examination and medical history.

If there’s concern about the size of the testis, your doctor will order a scrotal/testicular ultrasound. Based on this test, the doctor will discuss treatment and therapy options for your child.

If your son isn’t experiencing pain or discomfort, the recommendation may be to closely monitor growth and development of the testes as he goes through puberty.

If there is a significant difference in the size of the two testes, or if your son is experiencing pain, then surgical correction may be indicated. Nemours urologists can usually do this as an outpatient procedure, and in a few weeks your son can get back to normal activities.

A to Z: Cystitis

A to Z: Cystitis

Cystitis (sis-TYE-tis) is inflammation of the bladder, also known as a bladder infection. It's the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI) and mostly affects children and adult women.

More to Know

Cystitis is usually caused by bacteria (typically E. coli) that enter the body through the urethra and spread to the bladder. If not treated, the infection can travel to the kidneys and become a more serious problem.

urinary tract

Cystitis can occur in people who are otherwise healthy and have no medical problems. Irritants such as bubble baths or feminine hygiene products, poor toilet or hygiene habits, an abnormality in the structure or function of the urinary tract, drug interactions, or long-term catheter use all can cause a bladder infection.

Symptoms of cystitis include a persistent urge to urinate (pee), a burning sensation when urinating, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, low-grade fever, and a feeling of pressure or pain in the lower abdomen.

Wetting accidents in toilet-trained children often indicate cystitis. For infants and young children, cystitis may be harder to detect because symptoms are less specific. Sometimes fever is the only sign.

Keep in Mind

Bladder infections are painful and inconvenient, but most are caused by bacteria and can easily be treated with antibiotics. If you have blood in your urine, pain with urination, back or side pain, fever, nausea or vomiting, or abdominal pain, see your doctor immediately as these are signs of a possible infection in the urinary tract.

All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts.

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Date reviewed: September 26, 2016