Undescended testes (also called cryptorchidism or UDT) describes a condition where the testes, which form inside the abdomen, fail to move down into the scrotal sac. This occurs in about 20 percent of premature infant boys and 3 percent of full
The testes usually descend within the first few months of life. By 1 year of age, about 1 percent of boys have an undescended testis. Also, 10 to 15 percent of boys with undescended testes have bilateral (both sides) involvement.
How are undescended testes diagnosed?
The diagnosis of an undescended testis begins with the observation that one or both testes are absent from the scrotal sac.
If a testis is in the scrotum and disappears, it may be retractile. A testis that is temporarily drawn into the groin may require no treatment, while a true undescended testis requires surgery, called orchiopexy, which secures an undescended testis inside the scrotal sac.
What are the treatment options for undescended testes?
Nemours urologists will continue to evaluate the undescended testis until the child is 6 months old. Surgical treatment is recommended if there is failure of the testis to come down.
Reasons for surgical treatment include:
an undescended testis may get injured more easily and undergo twisting or torsion
if an undescended testis is left at a higher body temperature, normal growth of the sperm may not take place
an undescended testis that is not corrected places the child at a higher risk for cancer
an empty scrotum may cause worry and embarrassment for a child later in life
A renal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of the abdominal cavity, just above the waist. They remove waste products from the blood and produce urine. The ureters are thin tubes that carry the urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound waves into the kidney area and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal structure of the kidneys and related organs.
Why It's Done
Doctors order renal ultrasounds when there's a concern about certain types of kidney or bladder problems. Renal ultrasound tests can show:
the size of the kidneys
signs of injury to the kidneys
abnormalities present since birth
the presence of blockages or kidney stones
complications of a urinary tract infection (UTI)
cysts or tumors
Usually, you don't have to do anything special to prepare for a renal ultrasound, although the doctor may ask that your child not eat or drink anything for several hours before the test.
You should tell the technician about any medications your child is taking before the test begins.
The renal ultrasound will be done in the radiology department of a hospital or in a radiology center. Parents are usually able to accompany their child to provide reassurance and support. Your child will be asked to change into a cloth gown and lie on a table. The room is usually dark so the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen.
A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging will spread a clear, warm gel on your child's abdomen over the kidney area. This gel helps with the transmission of the sound waves. The technician will then move a small wand (transducer) over the gel. The transducer emits high-frequency sound waves and a computer measures how the sound waves bounce back from the body. The computer changes those sound waves into images to be analyzed.
Sometimes a doctor will come in at the end of the test to meet your child and take a few more pictures. The procedure usually takes less than 30 minutes.
What to Expect
The renal ultrasound test is painless. Your child may feel a slight pressure on the abdomen as the transducer is moved over it. You'll need to tell your child to lie still during the procedure so the sound waves can reach the area effectively. The technician may ask your child to lie in different positions or hold his or her breath briefly.
Babies might cry in the ultrasound room, especially if they're restrained, but this won't interfere with the procedure.
Getting the Results
A radiologist (a doctor who is specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray and ultrasound images) will interpret the ultrasound results and then give the information to the doctor. You and your doctor will go over the results. If the test results appear abnormal, your doctor may order further tests.
In an emergency, the results of an ultrasound can be available within a short period of time. Otherwise, results are usually ready in 1-2 days. In most cases, results can't be given directly to the patient or family at the time of the test.
No risks are associated with a renal ultrasound. Unlike X-rays, radiation isn't involved with this test.
Helping Your Child
Some younger children may be afraid of the machinery used for the ultrasound test. Explaining in simple terms how the renal ultrasound test will be conducted and why it's being done can help ease your child's fears. You can tell your child that the equipment takes pictures of his or her kidneys.
Encourage your child to ask the technician questions and to try to relax during the procedure, as tense muscles can make it more difficult to get accurate results.
If You Have Questions
If you have questions about the renal ultrasound, speak with your doctor. You can also talk to the technician before the exam.