A varicocele means there is enlargement of the veins in the scrotum caused by stasis of blood flow. The stasis can cause blood to pool in the vessel until the vessel wall begins to bulge, and the scrotal sac swells. Though it may appear earlier, a varicocele usually develops around the age of 15 (puberty) and often occurs on the left side.
If your son has a varicocele, he may not experience any pain or swelling, except perhaps during physical exercise. While bathing, he might notice a large vein in his scrotum, or that one testis is smaller than the other. Varicoceles are sometimes discovered during routine physical examinations.
If a varicocele is found during a physical examination by your child’s primary care physician, your child will be referred to a pediatric urologist. Your Nemours urologist will do a comprehensive evaluation of your child’s condition, including a physical examination and medical history.
If there’s concern about the size of the testis, your doctor will order a scrotal/testicular ultrasound. Based on this test, the doctor will discuss treatment and therapy options for your child.
If your son isn’t experiencing pain or discomfort, the recommendation may be to closely monitor growth and development of the testes as he goes through puberty.
If there is a significant difference in the size of the two testes, or if your son is experiencing pain, then surgical correction may be indicated. Nemours urologists can usually do this as an outpatient procedure, and in a few weeks your son can get back to normal activities.
From Nemours' KidsHealth
- What Can I Do About My Child's Bedwetting?
- Urinary Tract Infections
- Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and Related Conditions
- Kidneys and Urinary Tract
- Urine Test: Calcium
- Urine Test: Creatinine
- X-Ray Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG)
- Urine Test: Protein
- Urine Test: Dipstick
- Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)
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Urine Test: Protein
What It Is
A urine protein test measures the total amount of protein in the urine. Once a urine sample is collected, the lab determines the amount of protein in the urine sample. This test is often done as part of a routine urinalysis in which several chemicals in the urine are measured.
Why It's Done
In most healthy people, the kidneys prevent significant amounts of protein from entering the urine, so the urine protein test is most commonly used to screen for kidney disease. It's also used to monitor kidney function in kids already diagnosed with kidney disease or who are taking medications that can affect the kidneys.
Abnormal results also may point to diseases affecting other parts of the body. Other tests may be needed before a definite diagnosis can be made.
Before the test, your child might need to temporarily stop taking specific drugs that could interfere with results. Be sure to discuss this with your doctor.
Collecting the specimen should only take a few minutes. Your child will be asked to urinate into a clean sample cup in the doctor's office. If your child isn't potty trained and can't urinate into a cup, a small catheter may need to be inserted into the bladder to obtain the urine specimen.
Alternatively, a urine collection bag with adhesive tape on one end might be used to collect a sample from an infant. You'll clean your baby's genital area and then arrange the bag around the urinary opening. Once the bag is in place, you'll secure it with the attached tape. You can then put a diaper on your baby. Remove the collection bag once your baby has urinated into it, usually within an hour. Deliver this specimen to the lab.
If you take the specimen at home, follow any storage and transportation instructions the lab gives you.
What to Expect
Because the test involves normal urination, there shouldn't be any discomfort as long as your child can provide a urine specimen.
Getting the Results
The results of the urine protein test should be available within a day. Your doctor will go over the results with you and explain what they mean. If the results are abnormal, further tests may be ordered.
No risks are associated with taking a urine protein test. Infants may occasionally experience skin irritation from the adhesive tape on the collection bag. If a catheter is used to obtain the urine, it may cause temporary discomfort. If you have any questions or concerns about this procedure, talk to your doctor.
Helping Your Child
The urine protein test is painless. Explaining how the test will be conducted and why it's being done can help ease any fear. Make sure your child understands that there should be no foreign matter, such as toilet paper or hair, in the sample.
If You Have Questions
If you have questions about the urine protein test, speak with your doctor.
Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD
Date reviewed: February 2012