Patient and family education is important to us. Here you can learn more about autism spectrum disorders in children, and view trusted insights from KidsHealth.org, the No. 1 most viewed health site for children, created by the experts at Nemours. We've also provided information from the most respected nonprofit organizations.
About Autism in Children
Autism — whether mild or severe — is a lifelong condition and your child may need medication, therapy or support throughout his or her life. Thankfully today, unlike only a few decades ago, autism specialists can offer many interventions and therapies that can remarkably increase your child’s skills and abilities. The next few decades (and even the next few years) show great promise of more to come.
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which means it’s a condition related to the improper development of the neurons in the brain.
Children with an autism spectrum disorder develop “unevenly” and have difficulties in communication and social interactions and exhibit repetitive or restrictive behaviors. Very often, these children have exceptional strengths in other areas, such as math, visual processing and musical and artistic abilities (to name a few). Autism spectrum disorder is an active area of research — every day we’re uncovering important information about the disorder.
Traditional Types of Autism
Autism has had many names, including:
- autistic disorder (or autism) — refers to the more severe cases in which children have difficulty communicating and interacting with others (or they may be unable to communicate), and also exhibit unique repetitive/restrictive behaviors such as hand flapping, spinning or rocking.
- Asperger syndrome (AS, also called Asperger’s) — a milder form of autism in which children have average or above-average intelligence, impaired language skills only in some areas (like language pragmatics, or understanding the meaning of words in certain situations), impaired social skills (problems with reciprocity, or the natural “give and take” that occurs in a conversation) and repetitive/restrictive behaviors, sometimes related to a special interest.
- pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) — Because there are many variations within the autism spectrum — with no two children experiencing the same symptoms or patterns of behavior — today we refer to all types of autism as “autism spectrum disorder” regardless of how mild or severe symptoms may be.
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 1 in 88 children has an autism spectrum disorder. And while there are many theories about the causes of autism spectrum disorder in children, large research studies show vaccinations do not increase the risk for the disorder. Other studies show that genes may play a role, and possibly prenatal illness or infections, but it is not caused by anything a mother did, or did not do, during pregnancy. What’s more, autism is not a result of a child’s upbringing, amount of nurturing or environment at home. The cause of autism development disorder continues to be a very active area of study.
Children with an autism spectrum disorder exhibit behavioral symptoms in specific areas, with different degrees of severity, and at different ages or life stages. Some symptoms include:
- delayed babbling or speaking
- does not speak, or is “nonverbal” (but may be able to communicate using pictures or assistive technologies)
- problems understanding the meaning of words
- difficulty starting and sustaining (continuing) conversation
- can only talk about a special interest (no “small talk”)
- does not understand tone, body language or facial expressions
- interprets words literally (may not understand statements like “it’s raining cats and dogs”)
- may speak in a different tone (monotone or high-pitched)
Impaired Social Interaction
- does not engage in interactions or imitation (smiling back or responding to name)
- reduced interest in people
- lack of eye contact
- difficulty making and keeping friends
- difficulty playing games or working in groups (has own rules or way of playing)
- responds to things differently (laughs when it’s serious or cries when it’s not)
- hard time understanding how people think or feel (difficulty with or lack of empathy)
- difficulty seeing other people’s perspective
- difficulty regulating emotions (tantrums when overloaded)
- repeats words over and over
- upset when a routine is disrupted or changed
- hand-flapping, rocking or spinning
- uses toys differently (repeatedly lines items up, spins wheels on vehicles, opens and shuts/turns things on and off)
- intense fixation with details, particularly related to a special interest
Sensory Processing Difficulties
Some children may be easily overloaded by too much — or too little — sensory input. For example, children with an autism spectrum disorder may:
- react adversely to itchy clothing (tags or seams)
- dislike loud noises (vacuum cleaner, school bell, etc.)
- avoid bright lights (particularly flickering of fluorescent lighting)
- avoid being touched or hugged (or conversely, need more touch)
From Nemours' KidsHealth
- Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions
- Raising a Child With Autism: Paige and Iain's Story
- Is There a Connection Between Vaccines and Autism?
- Disciplining Your Child With Special Needs
- Occupational Therapy
- Does My Toddler Have a Language Delay?
- Camps for Kids With Special Needs
- Relaxation Techniques for Children With Serious Illness
- Individualized Education Programs (IEPs)
- Sending Your Child With Special Needs to Camp
- Asperger Syndrome
- Autism Special Needs Factsheet
- Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias
- What Is ADHD?
- Brain and Nervous System
- Auditory Processing Disorder
- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- Delayed Speech or Language Development
- Sleep Problems in Teens
- Speech-Language Therapy
- A to Z: Autism
Trusted External Resources
- The Power of Positive Parenting: A Wonderful Way to Raise Children, by Dr. Glenn I. Latham
- Educate Toward Recovery: Turning the Tables on Autism, by MA BCBA Robert Schramm
- Autism’s False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search For A Cure, by Paul A. Offit, MD
What Is OCD?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition that causes kids to have unwanted thoughts, feelings, and fears. These are called obsessions, and they can make kids feel anxious. To relieve the obsessions and anxiety, OCD leads kids to do behaviors called compulsions (also called rituals).
What Are Obsessions?
Obsessions are fears that kids with OCD can't stop thinking about. They may realize their thoughts don't make sense, but they still feel anxious about certain things.
These fears might include whether:
- they, or someone else, will get sick, hurt, or die
- they said a bad word, had a bad thought, or made a mistake
- they have broken a rule, done a bad thing, or sinned
- something is clean, dirty, or germy
- something is straight, even, or placed in an exact way
- something is lucky or unlucky, bad or good, safe or harmful
What Are Compulsions?
Compulsions (rituals) are behaviors that kids with OCD do repeatedly. OCD causes kids to feel they have to do rituals to "make sure" things are clean, safe, in order, even, or just right. To kids with OCD, rituals seem to have the power to prevent bad things from happening.
Rituals include things like:
- washing and cleaning
- often erasing things, re-writing, re-doing, or re-reading
- repeating a word, phrase, or question much more than necessary
- going in and out of doorways several times in a row
- checking to make sure a light is off, a door is locked, or checking and re-checking homework
- touching or tapping a certain number of times, or a set way
- having things in a specific order
- counting to a certain 'good' number, avoiding "unlucky" numbers
Why Do People Get OCD?
Scientists don't yet know why people get OCD, but they know biological factors play a role. Kids may get OCD because it's in their genes or they had an infection. There may be differences in brain structures and brain activity in people with OCD. But whatever caused OCD, it's not the child's or parent's fault.
What's It Like for Kids With OCD?
Kids don't always talk about the fears and behaviors OCD causes. They may feel embarrassed or confused about their fear and keep it to themselves. They may try to hide rituals they do. They may worry that others will tease them about their fears and rituals.
Kids with OCD feel unable to stop focusing on their obsessions. They feel like they have to do the rituals to guard against bad things they worry could happen. For some kids, doing a ritual is the only way they feel "everything's OK."
What Might Parents Notice?
Many kids have OCD for a while before parents, teachers, or doctors realize it. Parents might only learn about the OCD if their child tells them, or if they notice the child seems overly worried or is doing behaviors that seem like rituals.
Sometimes, parents may notice other difficulties that can be a result of OCD. For example, OCD can cause kids to:
- have trouble concentrating on schoolwork, or enjoying activities
- feel and act irritable, upset, sad, or anxious
- seem unsure of whether things are OK
- have trouble deciding or choosing
- take much too long to do everyday tasks, like getting dressed, organizing a backpack, completing homework, or taking a shower
- get upset and lose their temper if they can't make something perfect or if something is out of place
- insist that a parent say or do something an exact way
How Is OCD Diagnosed?
To diagnose OCD, you'll meet with a child psychologist or psychiatrist, who will interview you and your child to learn more details. You and your child also may fill out checklists and questionnaires. These will help the psychologist or psychiatrist make a diagnosis. There are no lab tests to diagnose OCD.
When OCD is diagnosed, it can be a relief to kids and parents. OCD can get better with the right attention and care.
How Is OCD Treated?
OCD is treated with medicine and therapy. For kids who need medicines, doctors give SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), like Zoloft, Prozac, and Luvox.
Therapists treat OCD with cognitive behavioral therapy. During this kind of talk-and-do therapy, kids learn about OCD and begin to understand it better. They learn that doing rituals keeps OCD going strong, and that not doing rituals helps to weaken OCD. They learn ways to face fears, cope with them, and resist doing rituals. Learning these skills helps stop the cycle of OCD.
Part of treatment is coaching parents on how they can help kids get better. Parents learn how to respond to OCD situations, and how to support their child's progress without giving in to rituals.
What Can Parents Do?
Talk with your child about what's going on. Talk supportively, listen, and show love. Say something that works for your child's situation like, "I notice you worry about your covers being smooth, your socks being even, and your shoes lined up. I notice it gets you stressed if you can't fix things just so."
Say that something called OCD might be causing the worry and the fixing. Tell your child that a checkup with a doctor can find out if this is what's going on. Reassure your child that this can get better, and that you want to help.
Make an appointment with a child psychiatrist or psychologist. Your child's doctor can help you find the right person.
Take part in your child's therapy. Learn all you can about how parents can help when their child has OCD. Overcoming OCD is a process. There will be many therapy appointments, and it's important to go to them all. Practice the things the therapist recommends. Encourage your child.
Get support, and give it. There are lots of resources and support for parents and families dealing with OCD. Knowing that you're not alone can help you cope. Sharing success stories with other parents can give you hope and confidence.
Reviewed by: Shirin Hasan, MD
Date reviewed: September 05, 2017