Your child’s endocrine system contains hormone-producing glands that help maintain growth and development, puberty, energy level and mood. Endocrine disorders in children are caused by too many or too few hormones circulating throughout the body. In order for your child’s body to function, everything needs to be working in harmony — that is, the glands need to secrete just the right amount of hormones throughout the blood stream.
Glands in the Endocrine System
The main glands of the endocrine system include:
Other glands that contain endocrine tissue and secrete hormones include:
The endocrine system and the nervous system work closely together. The brain sends messages and receives feedback through a “switchboard” called the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system). When this system isn’t working properly, hormone and growth problems can occur.
From the moment parents greet their newborn, they watch the baby's progress eagerly, anticipating every inch of growth and each new developmental milestone along the way. But how can they tell if their child is growing properly?
Physical growth refers to the increases in height and weight and other body changes that happen as a child matures. Hair grows; teeth come in, come out, and come in again; and eventually puberty hits. It's all part of the growth process.
The first year of life is a time of amazing change during which babies, on average, grow 10 inches (25 centimeters) in length and triple their birth weights.
Given all the growth that happens then, new parents might be surprised when their child doesn't continue to grow so fast after the first year. But no child continues the rate of growth experienced during infancy. After age 1, a baby's growth in length slows quite a bit. By age 2, growth in height usually continues at a fairly steady rate of about 2½ inches (6 centimeters) per year until adolescence.
No child grows at a perfectly steady rate throughout this period of childhood, though. Weeks or months of slightly slower growth alternate with mini "growth spurts" in most children. Kids actually tend to grow a bit faster in the spring than during other times of the year!
A major growth spurt happens at the time of puberty, usually between 8 to 13 years of age in girls and 10 to 15 years in boys. Puberty lasts about 2 to 5 years. This growth spurt is associated with sexual development, which includes the appearance of pubic and underarm hair, the growth and development of sex organs, and in girls, the start of menstruation.
By the time girls reach age 15 and boys reach age 16 or 17, the growth associated with puberty will have ended for most and they will have reached physical maturity.
At the Doctor's Office
Beginning in infancy, kids will visit a doctor for regular checkups. During these, the doctor will record height and weight as they compare with that of other kids the same age on a growth chart. This valuable tool can help the doctor determine whether a child is growing at an appropriate rate or whether there might be problems.
What Parents Can Do
You can do a few things to help ensure that your child grows and develops normally. Critical to kids' overall health and wellness are:
Enough rest:Sleep patterns vary by age and individual child, but most kids need an average of 10 to 12 hours of sleep per night. Sleep gives growing bodies the rest they need to continue growing properly.
Good nutrition: A balanced diet full of essential vitamins and minerals will help kids reach their full growth potential.
Regular exercise: Because obesity is a problem for many kids, parents should make sure that their kids exercise regularly. Bicycling, hiking, in-line skating, sports, or any enjoyable activity that will motivate kids to get moving will promote good health and fitness and help them maintain a healthy weight.
Talking to Kids About Growth
Kids differ in growth and development during childhood — just like adults, some kids are taller or shorter. Generally, girls hit puberty earlier than boys, although some girls might lag behind their peers in breast development or getting their first period. All of this is usually normal.
Try to avoid comparing growth among siblings or other children. Drawing attention to height, for example, will only make kids feel self-conscious about their size. Encourage your kids to accept their own growth and development. Explain that some kids grow and develop at different rates — and late bloomers usually catch up eventually.
Kids have many questions about growth, from why their teeth fall out to difficult or potentially embarrassing topics like breast development or sweating. Answer questions honestly and even initiate conversations about growth to help kids understand the many changes they're facing. This will help them accept the changes positively.
If you're uncomfortable discussing these topics, your kids may think that this means there's something shameful about the changes they go through and might be less likely to bring their concerns to you.
Kids who are short often face teasing by peers and may need help coping. You can help by supporting your child's self-esteem. For example, although it might be difficult for a small boy to make the football team, focusing on alternatives, such as soccer or tennis, may make him feel better about himself and what he can do. A small teen might have concerns about dating, driving, and participating in sports. It's important to try to understand your child's feelings and to keep the lines of communication open.
Another way to boost your child's mood is to encourage activities that don't focus on height or weight. Special skills and individual qualities, such as musical talent or a love of literature, are things to be proud of, too.
If You Think There's a Problem
Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that most kids who are short or delayed in development are healthy and normal. For example, shorter parents tend to have shorter children and not all kids develop at the same rate.
If you have concerns, the first step is to talk with your doctor, who can examine your child, ask questions about your family history and, if necessary, order tests to see if there's a medical condition affecting growth. The doctor may monitor your child's growth more often on a growth chart or refer your child to a pediatric endocrinologist (a doctor specializing in growth disorders) for further evaluation.
Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: January 10, 2017