Hypospadias is a condition in infant boys in which the opening that carries urine out of the body (the urethra) is on the underside, rather than the tip, of the penis. It’s a congenital condition, or present at birth, and that’s when you or your child’s doctor may first notice it.
There are different degrees of hypospadias, with the urethral opening appearing anywhere along the length of the penile shaft. Most are mild or moderate and a small percentage are severe. Hypospadias may cause your child to have a deflected urine stream.
There may also be other penile abnormalities associated with hypospadias. For example, the skin that covers the urethra is often thin and poorly developed and can result in bending of the penis, causing it to curve. This curvature is called a chordee. Although hypospadias may run in families, there’s no single known cause of the condition.
You might feel worried if your son is born with hypospadias, but you should know that it is a common condition. Nemours pediatric urologists are experienced at repairing the problem and restoring the appearance and function of your child’s penis.
Our Nemours urologists correct hypospadias with surgery that is usually performed when your son is older than 4 months of age. Depending on the severity of hypospadias, our doctor may perform straightening of the penis, relocation of the meatus (urethra opening) to the tip of the penis and the creation of a cosmetic glans (head of the penis) and penile shaft.
The goal of hypospadias repair is to normalize urination, create normal erections, and to improve the cosmetic appearance of the penis. The surgery is often same day surgery, and the overall results are excellent, with children going on to have normal urinary and sexual function in adulthood.
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A to Z: Neurogenic Bladder
A to Z: Neurogenic Bladder
The term neurogenic bladder refers to a bladder that doesn't function properly because of nervous system damage.
More to Know
Functions like filling, storing, and emptying the bladder are regulated by nerves. When these nerves become damaged, nerve signals are disrupted and loss of bladder control results.
Neurogenic bladder is often caused by an injury, tumor, or defect of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Diseases like cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and neural tube defects like spina bifida also can be responsible. Sometimes nerve damage due to heavy, long-term alcohol use, diabetes, or a slipped disk will cause the problem.
Symptoms of neurogenic bladder may include frequent urination (peeing), inability to fully empty the bladder, incontinence (the accidental release of urine), and urinary retention (inability to urinate). People with the disorder are also more likely to develop urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Treatment for neurogenic bladder might include medication, strengthening exercises, or the use of a urinary catheter. Some people will need surgery to help ease symptoms.
Keep in Mind
Neurogenic bladder is not curable, but it is manageable. It's important to see a doctor as soon as the condition develops, however. Left untreated it can lead to kidney failure, which can be life threatening.
All A to Z dictionary entries are regularly reviewed by KidsHealth medical experts.
Date reviewed: September 26, 2016