Undescended testes (also called cryptorchidism or UDT) describes a condition where the testes, which form inside the abdomen, fail to move down into the scrotal sac. This occurs in about 20 percent of premature infant boys and 3 percent of full
The testes usually descend within the first few months of life. By 1 year of age, about 1 percent of boys have an undescended testis. Also, 10 to 15 percent of boys with undescended testes have bilateral (both sides) involvement.
How are undescended testes diagnosed?
The diagnosis of an undescended testis begins with the observation that one or both testes are absent from the scrotal sac.
If a testis is in the scrotum and disappears, it may be retractile. A testis that is temporarily drawn into the groin may require no treatment, while a true undescended testis requires surgery, called orchiopexy, which secures an undescended testis inside the scrotal sac.
What are the treatment options for undescended testes?
Nemours urologists will continue to evaluate the undescended testis until the child is 6 months old. Surgical treatment is recommended if there is failure of the testis to come down.
Reasons for surgical treatment include:
an undescended testis may get injured more easily and undergo twisting or torsion
if an undescended testis is left at a higher body temperature, normal growth of the sperm may not take place
an undescended testis that is not corrected places the child at a higher risk for cancer
an empty scrotum may cause worry and embarrassment for a child later in life
Bedwetting is when kids who are old enough to control their bladder pee at night during sleep. It's a common problem in kids, especially those under 6 years old.
Why Does Bedwetting Happen?
Doctors don't know for sure what causes bedwetting or why it stops. But it's often a natural part of development, and kids usually grow out of it. It's most common in young kids, but can last into the teen years. Most of the time, bedwetting is not a sign of any deeper medical or emotional issues.
Bedwetting often runs in families: many kids who wet the bed have a relative who did too. If both parents wet the bed when they were young, it's very likely that their child will.
How Can We Cope With Bedwetting?
Bedwetting is an issue that millions of families face every night, and can be very stressful. Kids can feel embarrassed and guilty about wetting the bed and anxious about spending the night at a friend's house or at camp. Parents often feel helpless to stop it.
Bedwetting usually goes away on its own, but may last for a while. It can be embarrassing and uncomfortable for your child, so it's important to provide emotional support until it stops.
Reassure your child that bedwetting is a normal part of growing up and that it's not going to last forever. It may comfort your child to hear about any other family members who struggled with it when they were young.
Try to have your child drink more fluids during the daytime hours and less at night (and avoid caffeine-containing drinks). Then remind your child to go to the bathroom one final time before bedtime. Many parents find that using a motivational system, such as stickers for dry nights with a small reward (such as a book) after a certain number of stickers, can work well. Bedwetting alarms also can be helpful.
When your child wakes with wet sheets, don't yell or punish. Have your child help you change the sheets. Explain that this isn't punishment, but it is part of the process. It may even help your child feel better knowing that he or she helped out. Offer praise when your child has a dry night.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Bedwetting that begins suddenly or happens with other symptoms can be a sign of another medical condition, so talk with your doctor.
suddenly starts wetting the bed after being consistently dry for at least 6 months
begins to wet his or her pants during the day
snores at night
complains of a burning sensation or pain when urinating
has to pee often
is drinking or eating much more than usual
has swelling of the feet or ankles
is 7 years of age or older and still wetting the bed
Also let the doctor know if your child is under a lot of stress, if you're feeling frustrated with the situation, or if you could use some help. In the meantime, your support and patience can go a long way in helping your child feel better about and overcome the bedwetting.
Remember, the long-term outlook is excellent and in almost all cases, dry days are just ahead.
Reviewed by: Marcella A. Escoto, DO
Date reviewed: August 14, 2015