Many infants with MOPDII have been described as having feeding problems. However, it is important that the care provider lower their expectations of daily growth to 2 grams/day in the newborn period as well as throughout childhood 4. With the proper perspective, most children with MOPDII are noted to eat appropriately for their size and growing ability.
Small volumes and frequent feeding are typical. Sometimes nasogastric feeding or g-tube feedings are used, but unclear how often that is actually needed.
Even though the head size is small, cognitive development is close to typical for individuals who have not had any associated strokes.
A majority of individuals with MOPDII will develop moyamoya, brain aneurysms, or both. Moyamoya is diagnosed at a younger age than aneurysms, as early as the neonatal period. Aneurysm risk continues throughout the lifespan. 5 If diagnosed in the early stages, revascularization and aneurysm treatment can be performed safely and effectively 6.
Renal, coronary, and external carotid arteries can also develop stenosis. Hypertension has been noted in about half of the individuals with MOPDII who have been measured 5.
Some individuals have structural heart defects at birth, and/or coronary artery disease as young adults 5
Some individuals have structural differences at birth. Chronic kidney disease has also been noted in about a third of adults with MOPDII. 5
Insulin resistance is associated with MOPDII and can progress to frank diabetes 7, often in the teens.
Asymptomatic anemia and thrombocytosis are often seen. 5